These publications describe strategies for Replacing, Reducing or Refining (‘3Rs’) laboratory animal use. This is a vast field, and those seeking information regarding alternatives for specific applications should consider a comprehensive search of multiple appropriate bibliographic databases, and/or consult appropriate publications. The following publications only serve to provide overviews or examples that illustrate some of the potential offered by alternative research methodologies. For alternatives to harmful animal use in education, see Biomedical Education.


Replacement alternatives




Reduction and refinement alternatives





Toxicity testing





Other topics


  • 3Rs overview. Balls 1994, Altern Lab Anim. [article]
  • 3Rs overview. De Boo & Knight 2008, AATEX. [article with Japanese translation]