These publications describe invasive animal use within life and health sciences education, humane teaching methods, and studies comparing learning outcomes achieved by both types of method.


  • Cadavers. Kumar et al. 2001, JVME. [article]
  • Cadavers. Martinsen et al. 2008, AATEX. [article]






  • Overall. Gruber & Dewhurst 2004, ALTEX. [article]
  • Overall. Balcombe 2000. [book]